CARE-2 is one of the most accurate identifiers of youth at risk for violence

Development of the F-RISK

Assessments of risk for violence should evaluate all possible problem areas, including past behavior, community, family, peer, job/school, neurological, and mental health.  The F-RISK Risk Management Evaluation for Males is a violence risk evaluation for adult males.  The sample includes 204 males in an outpatient/forensic mental health setting.  It uses risk and resiliency factors and has a risk management planning tool.  Studies have found that the risk factors for adult violence are similar or the same as the risk factors for youth violence (Rice, Harris, Quinsey, 2002). Consequently, the F-RISK uses the same items as the youth version, but after further research and analysis the items have been re-worded and item weights have been changed to be appropriate for the adult sample. Both static and dynamic factors, which the research literature identified as being associated with severe behavior problems and aggression were used (Seifert, 2002; Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Comier, 1998). Higher rates of violent recidivism and other offending behaviors are found when there are greater numbers of risk factors and fewer resiliency factors.

Risk categories include 1) Individual characteristics such as history of violence, poor anger management, psychosis, and harming animals; 2) Peer interactions like bullying behaviors, and deviant peer group; 3) Work, school, and educational problems, such as lack of work success; 4) Family characteristics, such as exposure to violence during childhood and a history of harsh disciplinary practices by parents; present characteristics of relationship with partner. Work success and positive activities and prosocial and achievable future goals are examples of resiliency factors.

An analysis of the sample correlations showed that the strongest associations with a history of chronic assaults was use of a weapon in an aggressive act, any past aggression, history of behavior problems, assault of an authority figure, past severe assault, belief in the legitimacy of aggression as a means to an end, and having deviant peers. There were three protective factors: having a past or present relationship with a supportive adult, being successful at work, and involvement in positive activities. A regression analysis of chronic assaults found the strongest predictors to be a history of behavior problems, a history of assaultive behavior, use of a weapon in assaultive behavior, and assault of an authority figure.